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Photovoltaic (PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells for energy by converting sunlight directly into electricity. Due to the growing demand for clean sources of energy, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has expanded dramatically in recent years. Photovoltaic systems require high quality silicon. Although worldwide there are only very few manufacturers of the silicon wafers required (thin wafers of almost pure silicon), production capacities are increasing all the time. Silicon has a decisive social advantage in that unlike oil, sand is available in limitless quantities everywhere, thereby avoiding damage to or conflicts with the environment. Silicon is the second most abundant element on Earth after oxygen. Sand, quartz or semi-precious stones like amethyst or opals consist essentially of silicon.